By 1820 its population had reached 60,000, and its economy had shifted from its base in tobacco plantations to sawmilling, shipbuilding, and textile production.These industries benefited from war but successfully shifted into infrastructure development during peacetime.Damages were estimated at 0 million—in 1904 dollars.
Soon after the city created the world's first dental college, the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, in 1840, and shared in the world's first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington DC in 1844.
Maryland, a slave state with abundant popular support for secession in some areas, remained part of the Union during the American Civil War, due in part to the Union's strategic occupation of the city in 1861.
European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County, The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point (now Locust Point) in 1706 for the tobacco trade.
The Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729; with Jonestown and Fells Point preexisting to the east.
The nickname "Charm City" came from a 1975 meeting of advertisers seeking to improve the city's reputation.
Efforts to redevelop the area started with the construction of the Maryland Science Center, which opened in 1976, the Baltimore World Trade Center (1977), and the Baltimore Convention Center (1979).
The Town of Baltimore, Jonestown, and Fells Point were incorporated as the City of Baltimore in 1796–1797.
The city remained a part of surrounding Baltimore County and continued to serve as its county seat from 1768–1851, after which it became an independent city.
Harborplace, an urban retail and restaurant complex, opened on the waterfront in 1980, followed by the National Aquarium, Maryland's largest tourist destination, and the Baltimore Museum of Industry in 1981.